Literary devices are techniques or methods used by authors to enliven or inform their prose. They are identifiable conventions or structures employed in literature and storytelling. Not all literary devices will be used within one work.
A reference to well-known characters, events in history, or another work of literature. They are often indirect or brief. (e.g. The phrase "Surrender Dorothy" from The Wizard of Oz movie was changed to "surrender piggies” by illustrator Howard Fine in Piggie Pie (1995) by Margie Palatini.)
A type of fiction that self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction, exposing the fictional illusion. This is done to perfection in The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales (1992) by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith.
A puzzle consisting of pictures or symbols representing syllables and words. For example, "I can hear you, but I cannot see you." The "hear" would be represented by a picture of an ear and "see" with a picture of an eye.