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LITERACY

Below are the literacy elements defined in the Picture Book Database. The definitions are culled from several sources and are meant to help users understand why they were applied to records in the Picture Book Database; they are not meant to be definitive.

AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION

A book invites participation of the audience. It could be a book with a question and answer, call and response, or format.

CAUSE AND EFFECT

An event or situation and the effect (result) of the cause.

CHAIN OR CIRCULAR

Plot is interlinked so that the ending leads back to the beginning.

CHRONOLOGICAL PATTERN

The story follows a time sequence, such as a narrative built around the days of the week.

COMPARE/CONTRAST

Comparing and contrasting ideas or objects for similarities and differences; can help readers learn to organize and understand knowledge.

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

A conflict is central to the narrative. Events build to a climax, which is the turning point in the story. Character(s) resolve conflict(s).

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

Recognizing patterns and providing a way to use those patterns to solve a problem or answer a question.

INTERLOCKING PATTERNS

Each episode relates to the one before in an intriguing and dependable way.

LETTER KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge of letter names and shapes; includes learning letter sounds and recognizing words.

MAIN IDEA

The point or central thought of section of text (sentence, paragraph) that tells the reader what the text is about.

MULTIPLE NARRATIVES

Multiple scenes with different characters or settings on the same page or page spread.

PARALLEL STORY

A second story functioning within or alongside the principal narrative. Includes what some may refer to as a "story-within-a-story" or "subplot."

PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Phonological awareness is sensitivity to the sound structure of language. It is being able to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words.

PREDICTABLE PATTERN

Story is organized by a familiar sequence or recognizable scheme. Scenes are repeated with some variation.

QUESTION AND ANSWER

The same or similar questions are repeated throughout the story.

REPETITION

Word order in a phrase or sentence is repeated.

RHYTHM AND RHYME

Rhythm is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhyme is a pattern of words that contain similar sounds.

SEQUENCE

Sequence of events is relevant to the story.

STORY ELEMENTS

Titles with main and supporting characters, setting, conflict, plot components, point of view, and theme.

STORY-WITHIN-A-STORY

A story framed by or around the central narrative that provides background information and context.

SUMMARIZING

Ability to recall specific details and retell them in the correct order; highlights main ideas and key points.

WORDPLAY

A humorous play on words; a word or turn of phrase with a double meaning.

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